top of page

Acerca de

Clinical References

Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willett WC. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 13;345(11):790-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa010492. PMID: 11556298.


Marshall JA, Hoag S, Shetterly S, Hamman RF. Dietary fat predicts conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan;17(1):50-6. doi: 10.2337/diacare.17.1.50. PMID: 8112189.


Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa012512. PMID: 11832527; PMCID: PMC1370926.


Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2271-83. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977. Epub 2010 May 17. PMID: 20479151; PMCID: PMC2885952.


Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S. Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia. 2001 Jul;44(7):805-17. doi: 10.1007/s001250100547. PMID: 11508264.


Satija A, Bhupathiraju SN, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Chiuve SE, Borgi L, Willett WC, Manson JE, Sun Q, Hu FB. Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women: Results from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2016 Jun 14;13(6):e1002039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002039. PMID: 27299701; PMCID: PMC4907448.


Sluijs I, Beulens JW, van der A DL, Spijkerman AM, Grobbee DE, van der Schouw YT. Dietary intake of total, animal, and vegetable protein and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL study. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan;33(1):43-8. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1321. Epub 2009 Oct 13. PMID: 19825820; PMCID: PMC2797984.


Knip M, Veijola R, Virtanen SM, Hyöty H, Vaarala O, Akerblom HK. Environmental triggers and determinants of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54 Suppl 2:S125-36. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.54.suppl_2.s125. PMID: 16306330. 

Nilsson E, Jansson PA, Perfilyev A, Volkov P, Pedersen M, Svensson MK, Poulsen P, Ribel-Madsen R, Pedersen NL, Almgren P, Fadista J, Rönn T, Klarlund Pedersen B, Scheele C, Vaag A, Ling C. Altered DNA methylation and differential expression of genes influencing metabolism and inflammation in adipose tissue from subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2014 Sep;63(9):2962-76. doi: 10.2337/db13-1459. Epub 2014 May 8. PMID: 24812430.


Krentz AJ, Hitman GA. Sir Harold Himsworth and insulin insensitivity 75 years on. Diabet Med. 2011 Dec;28(12):1435. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03488.x. PMID: 21999486.


Himsworth HP. Diabetes mellitus: its differentiation into insulin-sensitive and insulin-insensitive types. Diabet Med. 2011 Dec;28(12):1440-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.3508.x. PMID: 22092505.


Singh I. Low-fat diet and therapeutic doses of insulin in diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 1955 Feb 26;268(6861):422-5. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(55)90211-7. PMID: 13234406.


Roberts CK, Barnard RJ. Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Jan;98(1):3-30. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00852.2004. PMID: 15591300.


O'Dea K. Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyle. Diabetes. 1984 Jun;33(6):596-603. doi: 10.2337/diab.33.6.596. PMID: 6373464.


Anderson JW, Ward K. High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-treated men with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Nov;32(11):2312-21. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/32.11.2312. PMID: 495550.


Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Green A, Ferdowsian H. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1588S-1596S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736H. Epub 2009 Apr 1. PMID: 19339401; PMCID: PMC2677007.


Barnard ND, Scialli AR, Turner-McGrievy G, Lanou AJ. Acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet compares favorably to a step II diet in a randomized, controlled trial. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2004 Jul-Aug;24(4):229-35. doi: 10.1097/00008483-200407000-00004. PMID: 15286527.


Dunaief, D. , Fuhrman, J. , Dunaief, J. and Ying, G. (2012) Glycemic and cardiovascular parameters improved in type 2 diabetes with the high nutrient density (HND) diet. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 364-371. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23053.



ACCORD Study Group, Buse JB, Bigger JT, Byington RP, Cooper LS, Cushman WC, Friedewald WT, Genuth S, Gerstein HC, Ginsberg HN, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Margolis KL, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG, Sullivan MD. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial: design and methods. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 18;99(12A):21i-33i. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.03.003. Epub 2007 Apr 16. PMID: 17599422.


Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G, McCombie L, Peters C, Zhyzhneuskaya S, Al-Mrabeh A, Hollingsworth KG, Rodrigues AM, Rehackova L, Adamson AJ, Sniehotta FF, Mathers JC, Ross HM, McIlvenna Y, Welsh P, Kean S, Ford I, McConnachie A, Messow CM, Sattar N, Taylor R. Durability of a primary care-led weight-management intervention for remission of type 2 diabetes: 2-year results of the DiRECT open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 May;7(5):344-355. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30068-3. Epub 2019 Mar 6. PMID: 30852132.


Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G, McCombie L, Peters C, Zhyzhneuskaya S, Al-Mrabeh A, Hollingsworth KG, Rodrigues AM, Rehackova L, Adamson AJ, Sniehotta FF, Mathers JC, Ross HM, McIlvenna Y, Stefanetti R, Trenell M, Welsh P, Kean S, Ford I, McConnachie A, Sattar N, Taylor R. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2018 Feb 10;391(10120):541-551. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33102-1. Epub 2017 Dec 5. PMID: 29221645.



Silverman MG, Ference BA, Im K, Wiviott SD, Giugliano RP, Grundy SM, Braunwald E, Sabatine MS. Association Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016 Sep 27;316(12):1289-97. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.13985. PMID: 27673306.


Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23;290(4):502-10. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.4.502. PMID: 12876093.


Bunner AE, Wells CL, Gonzales J, Agarwal U, Bayat E, Barnard ND. A dietary intervention for chronic diabetic neuropathy pain: a randomized controlled pilot study. Nutr Diabetes. 2015 May 26;5(5):e158. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2015.8. PMID: 26011582; PMCID: PMC4450462.


McCarty MF. Favorable impact of a vegan diet with exercise on hemorheology: implications for control of diabetic neuropathy. Med Hypotheses. 2002 Jun;58(6):476-86. doi: 10.1054/mehy.2001.1456. PMID: 12323113.


Milton G. Crane & Clyde Sample (1994) Regression of Diabetic Neuropathy with Total Vegetarian (Vegan) Diet, Journal of Nutritional Medicine, 4:4, 431-439, DOI: 10.3109/13590849409003592


KEMPNER W, PESCHEL RL, SCHLAYER C. Effect of rice diet on diabetes mellitus associated with vascular disease. Postgrad Med. 1958 Oct;24(4):359-71. doi: 10.1080/00325481.1958.11692236. PMID: 13591100.


Callaghan BC, Cheng HT, Stables CL, Smith AL, Feldman EL. Diabetic neuropathy: clinical manifestations and current treatments. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Jun;11(6):521-34. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70065-0. Epub 2012 May 16. PMID: 22608666; PMCID: PMC4254767.


Holman N, Young RJ, Jeffcoate WJ. Variation in the recorded incidence of amputation of the lower limb in England. Diabetologia. 2012 Jul;55(7):1919-25. doi: 10.1007/s00125-012-2468-6. Epub 2012 Mar 8. PMID: 22398645.


Cali AM, Caprio S. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth: an emerging epidemic disease? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Apr;15(2):123-7. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3282f57251. PMID: 18316946.


Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS, Chen MJ, Mathers JC, Taylor R. Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Diabetologia. 2011 Oct;54(10):2506-14. doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2204-7. Epub 2011 Jun 9. PMID: 21656330; PMCID: PMC3168743.


Kelly J, Karlsen M, Steinke G. Type 2 Diabetes Remission and Lifestyle Medicine: A Position Statement From the American College of Lifestyle Medicine. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2020;14(4):406-419. doi:10.1177/1559827620930962










Dean L, McEntyre J. The Genetic Landscape of Diabetes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2004. Available from:


Kelly J, Shull J. 2019. The Lifestyle Medicine Board Review Manual. 2nd Edition. American College of Lifestyle Medicine. US. 


Egger G et al. 2017. Lifestyle Medicine: Lifestyle, the Environment and Preventive Medicine in Health and Disease. 3rd Edition. Academic Press. UK.  

bottom of page